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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



.1 



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build, hack, tweak, share, discover. 



Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



Written By: Chris Reilly 



TOOLS: 



Heat gun or hair dryer (1) 

Multimeter or Continuity Tester (1) 

Plastic container or project enclosure for 
relay (1) 

Soldering iron and solder (1) 



PARTS: 



micro-controller (1) 

This project may also work with the new 
Arduino Uno, but hasn't been tested 

Arduino ProtoShield kit (1) 

from http://makershed.com and includes: 

ProtoShield bare PCB: Stackable 

headers. 6-pin (2): iers. 

8-pin (2): LEDs. 5mm. yellow (2): 
Resistors: 330Q.(2). 10K1(1): 
Momentary push buttons (2): 
Capacitors. 0. 1 F ceramic (2) 

Breadboard (1) 

Maker Shed#MKKN1. Goes directly on 
the ProtoShield. A separate breadboard 
can also be used 

Relay control PCB(1) 
SparkFun #COM-09096 

Relay SPST -NO (1) 
SparkFun #COM-00101 

Buzzer or Small Speaker (1) 
SparkFun #COM-07950 

resistors (1) 

#690865 and #691 104 from Jameco 
Electronics (http://jameco. com) 

Switching Diode (1) 
Jameco #36038 

NPN Transistor (1) 
Jameco #178597 

LED(1) 
Jameco #333973 

Thermistor (1) 
Jameco #207037 



Mnisti ire-seal heat-shrink <=>nrl nan M^ 



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Pagel of 15 



Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



#72855K24 from McMaster-Carr 
(http://mcmaster.com). $7 for 5 

Moisture-seal heat-shrink tubing (1) 
6"-12"McMaster #74965K64. $7 

Aluminum tube (1) 

McMaster #7237K29. $7: or at hardware 
stores 

120V AC female connector (1) 
McMaster #71 96K41. $11 

Extension cord or power cable (1) 
one you don't mind cutting up 

Crock Pot (1) 

Any slow cooker with an analog switch 

(manual on/off) should work 

Glass canning jars (2 or 3) 
uniform size is ideal 

Insulated wire (1) 
6' length 

Electrical Tape (1) 

Epoxy (1) 
optional 



SUMMARY 

I'm lazy. My impatience often leads me to botch important steps when I make yogurt. So to 
get better control over the fermentation process, I made a crockpot thermostat attachment to 
precisely control the temperature. 

You can buy electric yogurt makers, but most of them only incubate; the heating/sterilization 
step still has to be done on the stovetop. I wanted to experiment with Arduino microcontroller 
programming and electronic circuit design in Fritzing (an open source circuit layout tool that 
lets users document and share designs), so why not combine them into something I enjoy 
doing? 

With my old-school yogurt recipe (adapted from wikihow.com/Make-Yogurt), I'd use a 
stovetop and a candy thermometer to heat the milk to 185°F and cool it to 110°F, then use a 
warm oven or radiator to ferment it at 100°F. That takes a lot of attention, and more 
containers than I care to wash later. Even with a commercial yogurt maker, I'd probably 
have to heat the milk myself, and that's the step I'm most likely to botch. 

Don't get me wrong — it's a great recipe as long as you're diligent. But the combination of 
boring, time-consuming, temperature-sensitive steps puts my diligence to the test; that's 



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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 

why the automation of an Arduino-controlled crockpot yogurt maker makes perfect sense to 



me. 



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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



Step 1 — How the Temperature Control Works 



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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 




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• I plug my crockpot into a relay, 
which in turn is connected to the 
wall socket. I leave the crockpot 
switched on, so that the relay 
controls when power is supplied to 
the crockpot. The relay is toggled 
on and off by an Arduino 
microcontroller, based on readings 
from a waterproof temperature- 
sensitive resistor — called a 
thermistor — placed inside the 
crockpot. I put my yogurt 
containers in a water bath inside 
the crockpot to ensure even 
heating, then submerge the 
temperature sensor in the water. 

• A voltage divider circuit is used to 
indirectly measure the resistance 
of the thermistor. In the code that 
runs on the Arduino, I use the 
Steinhart-Hart thermistor equation 
to translate the thermistor's 
resistance into temperature. This 
gives a pretty good idea of the 
temperature inside the crockpot. In 
addition to the thermistor's 
resistance at a given time, the 
equation needs to be fed 3 
coefficients, which can be 
calculated from predetermined 
thermistor resistances at different 
temperatures, shown on the 
manufacturer's data sheet. 

• You can use a simple online 
calculator 
( http://makezine.com/go/thermistor ) 

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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



to get your coefficients for a given 
temperature range, or do the 
calculations yourself 
( http://makezine.com/go/diy_calc ). 
Since we'll be measuring a range 
between 100°F (38 °C) and 185°F 
(85°C), I used resistance values 
measured at 86° F (30° C), 140° F 
(60°C), and194°F(90°C)to 
calculate my coefficients. The code 
that decides whether the crockpot 
should be on or off is very simple; 
it checks the temperature once per 
second and turns the relay on or off 
if the temperature is under or over 
the target temperature. 

• If the temperature control were 
variable, like a dimmer switch, then 
it might make sense to use a more 
complex control called a 
proportional-integralderivative 
(PID) algorithm. PID controllers 
use a sophisticated set of rules to 
control things like heat or pressure 
and keep them from overshooting 
their target values (see "Sous Vide 
Cooker,"). For our purposes, 
though, a simple approach works 
fine. 



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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



Step 2 — Prepare the thermistor. 




• Since the temperature readings will 
be taken in the water bath, we need 
a way to keep the thermistor from 
getting wet. I found a great 
reference online for constructing a 
waterproof sensor 
( http://makezine.com/go/sensor1 ). 

• I waterproofed my thermistor by 
first soldering the thermistor onto 2 
long (~3') hookup wires, then 
wrapping the exposed wires with 
electrical tape. 

• I slid a short length of aluminum 
tubing over the sensor, then used 
moisture-resistant heat-shrink 
tubing and a heat-shrink end cap 
(on the open end of the tube) to 
seal both ends. You can use a heat 
gun or hair dryer to seal the tubing; 
you could also use epoxy to make 
the seals. 



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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



Step 3 — Construct the relay. 



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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 




• The Relay Control PCB from 
SparkFun comes disassembled, so 
you'll solder the components to 
theboard: relay, 1K resistors (2), 
10K resistor, diode, transistor, and 
LED. If you follow the component 
labels silkscreened onto the board, 
you shouldn't have much trouble. 

• A few tips: 

• The relay will only fit in the 
correct orientation. 

• The line on the diode must 
match the line on the board. 

• The flat side of the transistor 
lines up with the flat side of the 
outline labeled 2N3904. 

• The unlabeled circular outline is 
for the LED. Face the flat side of 
your LED's base toward the flat 
part of the outline. If your LED 
lacks a flat side, its shorter lead 
should face the flat outline. 

• SparkFun has a great tutorial for 
constructing a 120V relay outlet 
specifically for this relay board 
( http://sparkfun.com/tutorials/119 ). 
If you're uncomfortable working 
with high-voltage control or just 
don't feel like soldering as much, 
you can also check out SparkFun's 
PowerSwitch Tail, a premade 
version of this relay at 
http://sparkfun.com/products/9842 . 



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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



Step 4 




• Here is the yogurt maker's relay assembly. I deviated slightly from SparkFun's 
instructions by using a female connector instead of a GFCI outlet. Use the extension 
cord's male end with 12"— 14" of cord attached. Expose the cord's 3 wires in the middle of 
its length, then cut the black wire and solder the ends to the relay board's Load 1 and Load 
2 connections. This is where the line voltage toggles on and off. 

• Attach the 3 wires at the end of the cord to the female connector: the green/blue wire 
(ground) to the green screw terminal, and the black and white wires to the other 2 
terminals. Use a connectivity tester to make sure the larger slot receptacle is connected to 
the larger prong on the plug. 

• The solder points on the relay are basically live exposed wires, so use a project enclosure 
to keep the relay from accidentally being touched 

• CAUTION : Be extremely careful when working with line voltage, as it can actually 
kill 



A 



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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



Step 5 — Build the circuit. 




• Assemble the circuit, following these images. The former was drawn in Fritzing 
( http://fritzing.org ), an open source tool for creating interactive electronics. It offers a 
visual mode that lets you document circuits the way they look in real life — a great feature 
for those of us who aren't electrical engineers or are just visual thinkers. 

• The best part is that the visual mode is linked to a schematic diagram drawn with 
traditional electronics symbols, which can really help newbies to see the translation 
between the visual layout (first image) and the schematic layout (second image). 



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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



Step 6 — Load the code. 




• Download the code from http://makezine.com/25/yogurt and load it onto your Arduino. 

• The program controls 3 stages of temperature for making yogurt: 

• Stage 1: heats milk to 185°Ffor 10 minutes, to sterilize it and denature enzymes in it. 
(It'll reach 1 85° F faster if you cover the pot with a towel or blanket.) When Stage 1 
ends, the buzzer sounds for 1 minute. 

• Stage 2: cools the milk to 110°F. During this stage it's useful to remove the cover and 
any insulation to allow for faster cooling. When the temperature reaches 110°F, the 
buzzer will signal. The temp will hold at 1 1 0° F for 1 minutes, then Stage 2 ends. That's 
when you'll add yogurt or starter culture and seal the containers. 

• Stage 3: incubates the yogurt at 100°F for 8 hours then shuts off the heating element. 
This period can be increased to taste; the longer the fermentation, the more sour the 
yogurt. At the end of Stage 3, the alarm will sound for 10 minutes, at which point the 
yogurt containers should be refrigerated. 



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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



Step 7 — Make automatic yogurt. 




• Wash everything! Before starting, 
gather up all the containers, lids, 
and stirring utensils to be used. 
Thoroughly wash them with very 
hot, soapy water, then rinse them 
all well with more hot water. 

• Then follow this recipe and let your 
Arduino do the cooking. 

• Ingredients 

• 1 /2 gallon of milk 

• 1 package dry milk 

• Yogurt or starter culture 



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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



Step 8 




• Step 1 : Add the dry milk to the wet 
milk. Stir thoroughly. 

• Step 2: Fill the containers and 
place in a water bath in the 
crockpot. 

• Step 3: Loosely cover the jars to 
prevent condensation from dripping 
in, and insert the thermistor in the 
water bath. 

• Step 4: Plug the crockpot into the 
relay, and the relay into a power 
source. 

• Step 5: You can insulate the 
crockpot by covering it with towels 
or blankets to help the heating 
stage go faster. The milk will heat 
to185°F. 

• Step 6: Plug the Arduino into a 
computer. The serial monitor will 
give feedback and instructions. 

• Step 7: After the milk has cooled to 
110°F, add about 1 tablespoon of 
starter or yogurt per container. 

• Step 8: Seal the lids tightly and 
incubate for 7 hours (or more) at 
100°F. It's yogurt! Refrigerate after 
opening. 



This project first appeared in MAKE Volume 25. 



This document was last generated on 2013-01-29 01 :34:31 AM. 



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Yobot: Arduino Yogurt Maker 



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